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Anomalous electron-spin country populations within the Electron Paramagnetic Re sonance (EPR) spectra of radicals shaped in the course of radio lysis experiments have been saw in 1963 through FESSENDEN and SCHULER [170a]. This phenomenon didn't obtain a lot awareness on the time. In 1967, BARGON, FISCHER, and JOHNSEN  and independently WARD and LAWLER [7,8] stated an analogous phenomenon for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra taken in the course of radical reactions: emission or more desirable absorption, or either.
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Additional info for Antineutrino Detection for Monitoring Nuclear Explosions
Using the above capture time and position resolution estimates, a set of cuts can be defined for the coincident antineutrino signal with variables analogous to those in equation 7. The choice of the reconstructed distance is set by the expected position reconstruction resolution of about 1 m in each dimension. To calculate sensitivity in the presence of a dopant, we require estimates of three backgrounds beyond those for undoped detectors. These are: ● . correlated backgrounds from muon-generated fast neutrons that stike proton targets within the detector prior to absorption uncorrelated backgrounds produced by the overlap of positron and neutron-like signals within the 100 ps coincidence gate and the event containment volume real antineutrino backgrounds Positron-like backgrounds from internal radioactivity have been estimated in the previous section.
Arora and T. r,no. 109,1984, pp. 241-251. Tw J HamOn, ~~seis~c Verification of a comprehensive Test Ban;’ Science, VOL 227, No. 4684 J~u~ 18, ;985, pp. 251-257. u-to&o. edulkm3, op. cit. h~. 10Pulsed reactors could produce weak antineutrinobursts with a variety of time scales. 11Other detection methods, which rely on radiochemical conversion of nuclei by neutrinos, have cycle times thatare too slow to be useful for detecting fission explosions in real time. 328 barns for hydrogen. *3Detector parametersare taken from F.
Schoene@ S. Enomoto, J. Shirai, F. Suekane, A. Suzuki, “Measuring the Global Radioactivity in the Earth by Muhidetector Antineutrino Spectroscopy;’ Phys. Rev. Lett. Vol. 80, Number 3, p. 635, (1998). 18C. Rothschild, M. Chen, F. gov/abs/nucl-ex/9710001, Submitted to Geophysical Research Letters, 15 Oct. 1997. r. Underground. 19M. , “Neutron Flux Generated by Cosrn&Ray Depth Intensity Curve;’ R Nuovo Cimento, Vol. 12 C. N. 4, July-August 1989, p. 467. H. Chen, ‘The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory:’ Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A264, p.
Antineutrino Detection for Monitoring Nuclear Explosions