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By R. Stuart Tipson and Derek Horton (Eds.)

ISBN-10: 0120072475

ISBN-13: 9780120072477

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1 18) T. Taga and K. Osaki, Bull. Chem. Soc. , 49 ( 1976) 15 17 - 1520. STEPHEN J. ANGYAL 32 Alginate is a polymer consisting of a-L-gulopyranosyluronateand p-Dmannopyranosyluronate subunits; pectate consists of a-D-galactopyranosyluronate units, all (1 +4)-linked. The a-L-guluronate moiety has an a,e,a arrangement of oxygen atoms, rare in natural products. To explain the dramatic changes in the properties of alginic acid on addition of Caz+ions, Smidsrsd and coworkers119and, independently, Angyal,'*O suggested the formation of a complex (25) in which 0-4, 0-5, and 0-6 of a guluronate residue and 0-2 and 0-3 of a contiguous guluronate residue in the polymer chain are coordinated to Ca2+(0-4 of the first residue is 0-1 of the second).

Pickles, Aust. J. , 29 (1976) 1239- 1247. (170a) 1. I. Cubero and M. T. P. Lbpez-Espinosa, Curbohydr. Rex, 173 (1988) 41 -52. (171) M. E. Evansand S. J. Angyal, Curbohydr. Rex, 25 (1972)43-48. 42 STEPHEN J. , 4%); methyl P-D-lyxofuranoside, 3 1% (lit. 3-5%); and methyl PD-talofuranoside, 54% (previously unknown). This increase in yield, spectacular in some cases, is due not only to the shift in the equilibrium but also to the separation, without substantial losses, of the desired component by the calcium column.

Chim. Actu, 60 (1977) 259-261. -P. Morel, C. Lhermet, and N. Morel-Desrosiers,Can. J. , 64 (1986) 996- 1001. COMPLEXES OF METAL CATIONS WITH CARBOHYDRATES 31 5. Alduronic Acids Although this article deals with complexesof neutral carbohydrates, brief mention should be made of the aldonate and alduronate anions (the undissociated acids do not form complexes), which show complexing behavior similar to those ofthe neutral polyols. Interest in these acids, and particularly in the poly(hexuronates), is due to the industrially important gel-formation of alginic acid and pectin with calcium ions, caused by complex-formation.

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Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry 47 by R. Stuart Tipson and Derek Horton (Eds.)

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